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5G

Huawei accelerates commercialization of 5G network

Huawei has signed 22 commercial contracts for 5G and is working with over 50 carriers on 5G commercial tests. Original Link

Briefing: US lawmakers warn Canada about Huawei

The US recently signed a new law that prohibits government agencies from using Huawei and ZTE’s services and hardware. Original Link

What the satellite industry needs to know about where 5G stands

Satellite operators, analysts and industry observers remain optimistic that space-based communications will play a significant role in connecting 5G devices. Credit: iStock

This article originally appeared in the Aug. 27, 2018 issue of SpaceNews magazine.

As governments, companies and everyone in between prepare to trade out 4G wireless infrastructure for 5G, questions linger about what the transition will entail. For satellite communications companies, this switchover could be more daunting than any previous cellular transition.

The performance benchmarks for 5G wireless service are high: user download speeds of 100 megabits per second (Mbps) and uploads of 50 Mbps with a millisecond of maximum signal lag. That’s five times faster than the average household internet connection in the United States and Europe and 15 times faster than the global average. And all of this needs to be done with three times the spectral efficiency of 4G, effectively tripling the volume of data that can be sent over the same amount of spectrum.

Satellites today are just starting to near those throughput markers — Viasat’s ViaSat-2 offers 100 Mbps download speeds and Eutelsat and Hughes are building similarly capable satellites — but none are close to a single millisecond of latency.

Fifth-generation networks also must be capable of supporting a million devices in a single square kilometer and maintain connections for mobile devices traveling up to 500 kilometers per hour.

Despite these challenges, satellite operators, analysts and industry observers remain optimistic that space-based communications will play a significant role in connecting 5G devices. SpaceNews spoke to experts in the U.S. and Europe about what the satellite industry needs to know about 5G.

1. When will 5G networks start activating?

An estimated 12 percent of cellular operators say they will start commercial 5G service this year, according to an August study by IHS Markit. The bulk of 5G rollouts are expected in the subsequent years, however.

“The U.S., China, South Korea and Japan — these four countries are in the front,” said Emanuel Kolta, an 5G analyst at ABI Research in London.

Kolta expects those four early adopters to lead the way into 2019, followed by Western Europe and Australia.

“It is going to get more and more common, and we can see an inflection point: at 2020, it is going to get more common globally,” he said.

Thierry Lefort, who leads European satellite business for the telecom, media and technology practice at PwC’s Strategy& division, said a recent poll of mobile network operators found few are rushing to implement 5G.

“A lot of players are engaged in trials, but the actual deployments will start very slowly,” Lefort said from Amsterdam. “This is what we believe. Many operators mentioned to us that they will not start before 2020 or 2021, and it is likely to be in some areas a slow start.”

“Even for low latency requirements, satellite can be very helpful in complementing terrestrial [5G] infrastructure.” — Nelson Malaguti, ITU counsellor
“Even for low latency requirements, satellite can be very helpful in complementing terrestrial [5G] infrastructure.”
— Nelson Malaguti, ITU counsellor

2. Is satcom being considered as 5G networks are defined?

The answer is yes, says Nelson Malaguti, at the Geneva-based International Telecommunication Union’s Radicommunication Bureau. Compared to previous technology generations, 5G is “a network of networks or system or systems,” he said, and that higher level of interconnectedness means factoring in all kinds of telecom infrastructure.

“The previous ones were focused on terrestrial systems — 3G and 4G — but now this concept of integration is really in place,” he said.

“The good news is that satellite has been included into 5G standards, and now can become an integral part of 5G,” said Lefort, referencing the work of a coalition of seven telecom standards organizations called 3GPP — the 3rd Generation Partnership Project. “That is basically the start of the conversation: to recognize there is an opportunity because satellite has been included into 5G standards.”

3. Will 5G’s one-millisecond latency benchmark doom satellite applications?

A lot of the time, yes, but not always. Malaguti said the ITU originally sought to put a number on how much 5G traffic will go over satellite, at one point projecting around 20 percent, but ditched that figure.

“It depends, because not all applications are latency sensitive,” he said. “You have some applications like video where if you want to transmit something you can store and cache it. This is not latency sensitive. Not everything needs one millisecond.”

Kolta said the significance of latency is “one of the most relevant questions for 5G in satellite.”

“In general, satellites naturally have longer latency than terrestrial systems and this is one of the key disadvantages of satellite for 5G,” he said.

Self-driving cars, for example, will need extremely low latency, while a moisture sensor at a farm may only need to phone home once an hour.

Orbiting 36,000 kilometers above the Earth, geostationary satellites generally have an unavoidable signal lag between 500 and 700 milliseconds — a far cry from the goal of 5G — but satellites in lower orbits get closer to the mark. SES’s O3b satellites, operating in medium Earth orbit at 8,000 kilometers, have less than 200 milliseconds of latency. Future low Earth orbit systems like those of SpaceX, OneWeb and Telesat target 50 milliseconds or less.

“If you consider these three types of constellations, GEO, MEO and LEO, you can cover a lot of applications, even some latency sensitive applications,” Malaguti said.

4. What will satellite be used for in a 5G world?

One of the main differences between 4G and 5G is that the latter will need many more base stations to cover the same geographic area. Lefort estimated three to five times as many base stations — be they connected to towers, buildings or lamp posts — will be needed to cover an area with the amount of capacity and speed demanded.

Here the ability of satellites to single handedly cover entire continents comes in handy.

“You start with the advantages that satellite has, like ubiquitous coverage,” said Tom Stroup, president of the Washington-based Satellite Industry Association.

Satellites can bring 5G to areas where terrestrial connectivity companies consider it too expensive to build fiber-optic cables. Rural areas especially stand to benefit from satellite connectivity, Stroup said.

Stroup said he found himself during a recent visit to sparsely populated South Dakota without 4G or even 3G connectivity.

“There are ranchers and farmers in that area that would desire existing broadband or mobile service and it’s not there today,” he said. “That’s why I say it’s hard to envision that 5G is going to create a business model that is going to put small cells on every fence post in areas like that.”

Satellites can link central 5G stations to small cell stations in rural communities, Malaguti said, a service known as trunking. Satellites can also “backhaul” connections directly to local cell stations for extremely remote locations like islands, he added.

“The possibility for satellite 5G is to cover areas that will not be covered by terrestrial 5G,” said Lefort. “Inherently, terrestrial 5G will never be able to reach the coverage of 4G in the next five, perhaps even 10 years, as it requires densification of the radio network — base stations — which will be achieved mainly via small cells.”

Airplanes, trains boats and other vehicles that frequent regions of the planet beyond the reach of cellular companies will continue to rely on satellite links, experts agreed.

The largest ramp up in 5G subscriptions and traffic is not expected until 2022 to 2023, but when it begins, the data volumes will be huge. Within a few years of introduction, 5G networks are expected to carry hundreds of thousands of petabytes of data annually. One petabyte is 1 million gigabytes.
The largest ramp up in 5G subscriptions and traffic is not expected until 2022 to 2023, but when it begins, the data volumes will be huge. Within a few years of introduction, 5G networks are expected to carry hundreds of thousands of petabytes of data annually. One petabyte is 1 million gigabytes.

5. Will 5G’s spectrum needs harm the satellite industry, or help it?

New frequency bands for 5G “may be the hottest topic of WRC-19,” according to Malaguti. He said ITU is finalizing a document called the Conference Preparatory Meeting report that will contain all the studies performed ahead of the 2019 World Radiocommunication Conference where regulators decide on how to allocate spectrum around the world.

While much of the focus in the U.S. is on C-band where Intelsat, SES and Eutelsat have agreed to cede some of the prized spectrum for 5G in exchange for financial compensation, experts said most of the discussion around 5G spectrum globally is on other frequencies.

Malaguti said the majority of spectrum conversations are about “much higher frequency bands,” within the 24.25 to 86 GHz range, many of which are not heavily used by satellites.

“Satcom operators have been proactive in stating which higher bands they would not care so much about,” Lefort said. “There is not as much at stake in those un-chartered higher bands. There have been a lot of proactive discussions, including with 5G players very influential toward the ITU like Qualcomm and others.”

Lefort said that while more amicable discussions — if there is such a thing for spectrum — are happening around higher bands, it is true that lower frequencies like C-band are easier for cellular operators to work with.

“If you are a 5G telecom operator the first thing you want to do is deploy in the lower bands, for economic reasons, until the business case is demonstrated for higher bands,” he said.

Malaguti said spectrum sharing — an idea decried in the satellite industry — could be possible on a limited basis in regions where satellite terminals are not heavily employed. Such a compromise would be a difficult sell, but Malaguti says he is “always optimistic.”

“We can make studies and come to some detailed conclusions allowing the shared use of the bands, or where it is not possible to share we can find a balance to allocate these bands,” he said.

Stroup said it’s possible satellite operators could even gain some spectrum as discussions around 5G progress.

“As we start deploying the services, there will be an ongoing evaluation of what spectrum is needed, so I think there may very well be an opportunity.”

SpaceNews.com

Original Link

Briefing: India bans 5G trials by Huawei and ZTE

India has decided to place its 5G development into the hands of Cisco, Samsung, Nokia, and Ericsson. Original Link

National Space Council officials to attend WRC-19 spectrum conference

Beavin, National Space Council

WASHINGTON — Every three to four years, spectrum regulators convene to set rules on the use of the world’s limited radio frequency resources at an event known as the World Radiocommunication Conference. Next year the United States’ recently formed National Space Council will attend to defend the interest of American satellite operators and influence changes in international space policy.

Michael Beavin, senior policy adviser at the National Space Council, confirmed the council “is planning to send folks” next fall to the four-week conference, referred to as WRC-19, in Sharm el-Sheikh, Egypt.

“The international contest for spectrum between terrestrial and space services will be an important part of the next radio communications conference in 2019,” Beavin said July 26 during an event here hosted by the conservative Federalist Society think tank. “At this meeting, the United States will be working to identify more spectrum for terrestrial 5G users. At the same time we will be working to ensure a stable, harmonized international regulatory environment for satellite services meeting government and private sector needs.”

The satellite industry fared better than expected at the previous WRC in 2015, protecting the majority of the 800 MHz C-band from mobile operators wanting the spectrum for cellular networks. The satellite industry also flustered the U.S. Federal Communications Commission by uniting against U.S.-led efforts to examine satellite Ka-band spectrum’s potential for 5G cellular networks.

The UN’s International Telecommunication Union organizes the WRC conferences. Francois Rancy, director of the ITU’s radiocommunication bureau, said last November that C- and Ka-band look like prime targets for cellular 5G ‘harmonization,’ or coordinating the spectrum on a regional or global basis for a single purpose.

Beavin detailed the National Space Council’s mindset heading into WRC-19, saying the U.S. requires a mix of satellite and terrestrial communications, and wants to be a leader in both, not one or the other.

“To this end, we will be working to ensure adequate protection and spectrum access for satellite service and new spectrum access for terrestrial broadband services,” he said. “We will not engage in industrial policy games to pick technological national champions on Earth or in space.”

Beavin said the National Space Council also wants the ITU to streamline regulatory coordination procedures for small satellites, arguing that it can take up to seven years, at which point a small satellite could be built, launched, operated and deorbited before the ITU’s processes are complete.

FCC Commissioner Michael O’Rielly echoed the importance of satellite communications, but said he remained frustrated with the satellite industry’s deflection on Ka-band at WRC-15.

“The satellite industry had done its homework and was quite successful globally in blocking a lot of different things,” O’Rielly said during the Federalist Society event. “I worry that we are heading down the same path with WRC-19.”

O’Rielly said he has advocated for more agreement on a national level and a regional level with CITEL, the Inter-American Telecommunication Commission, regarding the U.S. stance heading into WRC-19.

O’Rielly said some nations also sought to block U.S. proposals at WRC-15 for what appeared to be no other reason than to irritate the U.S.

“They will block the United States from moving forward even if it’s not to the detriment of their own country for purposes of competitive reasons,” he said without naming specific countries. “That can’t be allowed to survive, in my opinion.”

SpaceNews.com

Original Link

Huawei increases annual R&D spending amid 5G push

Huawei to raise minimum annual R&D spending to at least US$15 billion – SCMP
What happened: Huawei will increase its research and development (R&D) spending to between $15 billion and $20 billion annually. The increased budget will allow its R&D department to dedicate 20 to 30% of its financial resources to basic scientific research. The company spent a total of RMB 89.7 billion (US$13.2 billion) on research last year, accounting for 14.9% of its total revenue. It already has a huge team focussed on the development of new technologies, with around 45% of its employees engaging in R&D-related activities.

Why it’s important: The increase in R&D spending comes as Huawei is experiencing resistance in overseas markets. The US, UK, and Australia have all voiced concerns about the company’s technology on security grounds. Despite this, Huawei hopes to spearhead the development and deployment of 5G infrastructure globally, with its 5G base stations already receiving approval for sale within the EU. The additional R&D spending should help it realize these ambitions.

Original Link

Huawei increases annual R&D spending amid 5G push

Huawei to raise minimum annual R&D spending to at least US$15 billion – SCMP
What happened: Huawei will increase its research and development (R&D) spending to between $15 billion and $20 billion annually. The increased budget will allow its R&D department to dedicate 20 to 30% of its financial resources to basic scientific research. The company spent a total of RMB 89.7 billion (US$13.2 billion) on research last year, accounting for 14.9% of its total revenue. It already has a huge team focussed on the development of new technologies, with around 45% of its employees engaging in R&D-related activities.

Why it’s important: The increase in R&D spending comes as Huawei is experiencing resistance in overseas markets. The US, UK, and Australia have all voiced concerns about the company’s technology on security grounds. Despite this, Huawei hopes to spearhead the development and deployment of 5G infrastructure globally, with its 5G base stations already receiving approval for sale within the EU. The additional R&D spending should help it realize these ambitions.

Original Link

Lenovo founder in public backlash for ‘unpatriotic 5G standards vote’

Lenovo founder in public backlash for ‘unpatriotic 5G standards vote’ · TechNode

Original Link

China Mobile says 5G networks do not require new SIM cards, increased data usage

China Mobile says 5G networks do not require new SIM cards, increased data usage · TechNode

Original Link

The 3 Horsemen of the Legacy System Apocalypse

The world is speeding up; people expect customized information and services immediately. In these tumultuous times, some companies are clinging to their legacy data infrastructure as a security blanket. However, traditional RDBMSs are just not able to provide the massive scales, edge distribution, and virtual or cloud deployments that are necessary for modern applications. In particular, there are three market drivers that spell the end of legacy systems: 5G, Internet of Things, and Machine Learning.

5G: Not an Evolution, a Revolution

There was a lot of hoopla surrounding 4G, and one could be forgiven for thinking that the transition to 5G would be similar. But make no mistake—the leap from 4G to 5G is much larger than from 3G. 5G requires network slicing, utilizing multiple edge deployments, and much lower latencies than 4G. With 5G, CSPs will massively expand application possibilities and capacity. However, these come with stringent requirements: for each call, the system has to know who the caller is, where they are, what the caller’s policy is, if they have credit, and more, all in milliseconds. Legacy systems simply cannot keep up.

Internet of Things — Analytics Powering Decisions

Analyst firm Gartner predicted that around 6.4 billion IoT devices would be in use worldwide in 2016, and a McKinsey report estimates that IoT has the potential to represent around 11% of the world’s economy by 2025. That’s around 0.84 devices per person in the world, with almost assured explosive growth. Most legacy infrastructures just do not meet the stringent requirements to power IoT applications. You will have to deal with millions, if not billions, of sensors sending data to your data centers each second.

Processing all that data is one challenge; making it useful is an entirely different mountain. The most successful IoT applications will not only need to ingest the deluge of data, but then make decisions on the data in real-time. For example, smart meters that monitor usage and conditions, such as weather, time of day, and more. The meters then adjust the price of service(s) accordingly. Since usage and conditions can change any instant, you need real-time monitoring and decisions to get the most out of each meter.

Another example is using IoT in manufacturing or high-performance computing. Sensors monitor the performance and condition of hardware and environment and make adjustments to achieve the best results. This use case requires accurate real-time decisions to get the best results now, instead of what would be the best results 5 minutes ago.

Machine Learning — Acting on Knowledge Now

Most companies are looking at how they can leverage ML to get ahead of their competition. And they should; ML is going to cause massive waves in almost every industry. However, while there is a lot of talk and action on some parts of ML, most people are missing the crucial final component: implementation. You can create the most sophisticated model possible, but it doesn’t actually help you unless you have a way to use it. You can use your classic data lake or warehouse to train and update your models, but unless you implement models in real-time, what’s the point?

Legacy infrastructure just cannot keep up with ML applications. For example, an ML-powered fraud detection system requires ingesting and processing potentially hundreds of data points per card swipe, with thousands of card swipes per second. In this use case, the importance of accuracy is evident—false positives mean angry customers, and undetected fraud hurts the bottom line. In addition, the value of real-time implementation is also evident: you can stop fraud, instead of fixing it after the damage is done.

Another use case where real-time is essential to ML implementation is hyper-personalization. When a user opens an app or loads a website, they want to see content that is personalized to them. Having unpersonalized, or worse, improperly personalized, content harms user experience and retention. In addition, deferred personalization means that you could be missing out on offers users would be willing to take in that moment. Making correct personalization decisions in real-time using ML allows you to keep users engaged with your content and offers.

Staying Ahead of the Tide

Legacy systems are dying, and replacing them with real-time alternatives allows you to use the most current data to provide the best service possible. Markets are moving quicker than ever, and you need to keep ahead of the latest trends and disruptors to ensure success. Like most disruptors, 5G, IoT, and ML all interact with each other to create new possibilities and challenges.

To learn more about how market leaders such as OpenNet, Huawei, and FT.com are using VoltDB to achieve these use cases (and more), watch this interview by Solutions Review with our CEO, David Flower.

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Huawei receives approval to sell 5G base stations in the EU

Huawei’s 5G base station can now be sold within the EU region. According to a Xinhua News report, Huawei has passed the EU certification authority TÜV SÜD’s verification requirements and become the first company to obtain the CE type examination certificate (TEC) for 5G products—which means it is approved for commercial use in the EU.

Huawei initiated its 5G research project back in 2009 and since then has invested over $600 million in related research and has established eleven 5G research centers across the world. In February, the smartphone maker unveiled its first 5G chipset compatible with global standards, which is said to be part of its effort to reduce dependence on US semiconductor company Qualcomm.

Huawei is one step closer to realizing large-scale 5G commercial deployment despite the hurdles it faced while trying to make inroads in the US market. By contrast, Europe has proven to be a friendlier market for Chinese tech companies to expand into. The company said it is increasingly looking at the Europe to grow its international market share.

China is rushing to be the first country to roll out 5G, and has been aggressively testing out the technology. On the same day as Huawei getting this approval, Chinese regulators gave approval for the three state-run telecom operators to test 5G in 16 major cities across China.

Nicole Jao is a technology reporter based in Shanghai and Taipei. She’s passionate about emerging trends, news, and stories of human interest within the world of technology. Connect with her on Twitter or via email: nicolejao@technode.com.

Original Link

China to start testing 5G in 16 major cities

China to start testing 5G in 16 major cities · TechNode

Original Link

Why China and the US are fighting over 5G



Why China and the US are fighting over 5G · TechNode
























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The Arrival of 5G: Do You Have a Fast Data Strategy?

5G isn’t just an incremental increase in speed and bandwidth — it’s the new face of the network and a key driver of the digital revolution. Until now, the technology was regarded as a buzzword or something “just around the corner.” But with a number of public demonstrations, including at the recent 2018 Olympics by industry leaders including Vodafone, Intel, Huawei, Verizon, and more, it’s safe to say that we have reached the era of 5G.

As the industry works towards making 5G commercially available, we are likely to see telcos take their individualized paths. Verizon is currently focusing on providing massive bandwidth, ultra-high speed, and single-digit latency for emerging fixed and mobile use cases, while rival AT&T is planning on introducing a “puck” that will act as a mobile hotspot until 2019, when 5G smartphones debut. Regardless of how communication service providers (CSPs) intend to bring 5G to market, each will have to overhaul their related technologies and infrastructure. To operate at scale with high availability, establishing a fast data strategy to leverage 5G to its fullest potential should be on every telco’s to-do list.

Take Full Advantage of 5G With a Fast Data Strategy

Before CSPs even worry about big data, there’s fast data — or data in motion. With 5G, providers will be tasked with supporting lower latencies (as low as a millisecond for some applications) and higher throughput than with 4G. At the same time, telcos will have to manage the increases in data traffic from smartphones and signaling from notifications and IoT devices.

To establish responsive network management and appropriate Quality of Service (QoS), providers will need a real-time decisioning engine that can analyze call and usage data, monitor policy, and maximize the value of 5G applications. 

By adopting a fast data strategy, telcos will be prepared with the capabilities to interact with the rich, real-time data streams running through 5G networks. With a fast data strategy, providers will have the following strategic advantages:

  • Detect declining QoS in the network and quickly remediate the situation.
  • Adjust network traffic in real-time to fix performance perception issues.
  • Make real-time service upgrades or contract extension offers to make the most out of customer interactions.
  • Gain insights into “soft errors” that might not be flagged as an issue by a network engineer.
  • Transmit real-time messaging to customers experiencing degraded service to alert them to proactivity in mitigating issues.

Don’t Forget Data Slicing: Act Now Before Getting Consumed by the Competition

Data slicing also exacerbates the complexities of 5G by allowing providers to split a single physical network into multiple virtual networks and applying different policies to each to lend optimal support for individual services. When considering the implications of 5G, it goes beyond managing speed and scale to being able to focus on data-driven policy management.

CSPs, while accustomed to the sustained competitive pressures that threaten their customer base each month, will face stronger forces, as each layer in the stack will need to be differentiated. But there are steps that can be taken, like adopting a fast data strategy with a real-time database, that promise to offer relief. With a fast data rules engine, telcos will be able to support not just billions of messages in real-time to quickly deploy the required network resources for QoS, but also reduce the cost of managing the burgeoning operational data generated by 5G services.

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5G Is Coming: An Overview of the Advantages and Challenges

The first-ever 5G Olympic games (Pyeongchang Winter Olympics) have come and gone – and the 5G experience at the event was just a tad underwhelming. While the 5G application demos were instructive enough, the fact that no one could actually try out the technology on their devices pegged things back a touch. At the 2020 Tokyo Summer Games, though, the implementations are set to be turned up by a couple of notches – with Intel collaborating with NTT DoCoMo to create a full-blown 5G network for the event. According to reasonable estimates, the world will have more than 1.1 billion 5G connections by 2025 (accounting for ~15% of the total connections). Taken together, the fourth and fifth-generation wireless standards will make up around 67% of all the mobile connections worldwide. In today’s discussion, we will take you through some key benefits of the 5G technology, along with a few potential problems:

Advantage: Higher Speeds Than Ever Before

For the average Joe, this is going to be the biggest benefit of 5G connectivity. Early reports have shown that data rates in a 5G device can be more than 10 GBps – almost a thousand times faster than a 4G device (i.e., 4G LTE networks). An ultra-HD movie that takes XX minutes to be downloaded on a stable 4G connection, will become downloadable in 10 seconds or less. Since the bandwidth will be much higher, the average response time will also go down a lot (1 millisecond in 5G; 45-50 milliseconds in 4G). The significantly higher throughput rates (around 10 times greater than 4G) will also make online gaming and general 4K video streaming possible at blazing speeds. No more frustrating waits for a web page to load!

Note: Huawei is set to launch its first 5G mobile device – powered by the Balong 5G01 chip – later this year. Qualcomm’s made-for-5G X50 chip will be used by many of the OEMs in the 5G race, including LG, HMD Global, and Xiaomi.

Challenge: The Cost Factor

For any new technology to be of practical use, it must not be prohibitively expensive. The mass adoption of 5G might face some initial roadblocks regarding this. For starters, the initial subscription plans are likely to be more expensive than the ones currently available. The annual investments required for upgrading to 5G might push towards the $200 billion mark – raising questions over the justifications of actually switching over from 4G to 5G. A 2016 report suggested that nationwide 5G coverage for the United States would probably cost more than $300 billion. In addition, carriers will also have to incur heavy expenses for upgrading their existing infrastructure to accommodate the new devices and antennas required by 5G systems. It’s going to be a full-blown overhaul, and it isn’t going to be cheap.

Note: Over the long-term, the 5G subscription prices might gradually come down – to match the growing demands of users.

Advantage: Many New Use Cases

5G will usher in a large number of new applications – for use cases that are not even close to being possible in the 3G/4G regime. Teslasuit used the MWC UK platform to showcase the minimal latency of the technology, by connecting a VR headset with a computer system – and ensuring that viewers received a full-fidelity VR experience. Remote surgeries, with the help of haptic feedback, will become possible – while 5G will also be of value for drones for delivery, autonomous vehicles, monitoring and predictive maintenance, and creation of smart cities. Location-tracking will also become faster and more accurate (finding missing people should become a simpler task) – while the new high-speed wireless standard can also be used by governmental bodies for investigative purposes. All 5G use cases in general, and the AR/VR capabilities in particular will make use of very high bandwidth applications.

Note: In the 5G millimeter wave, the average latency can be as low as 1 millisecond.

Challenge: Uncertainties Over Coverage and Radio Frequencies

There are reports indicating that 5G macro-optimized will, in all probability, use the 6 GHz (maybe, slightly lower) frequency. The catch over here is, this radio frequency band is already being used by satellite links and many other different signal types. This particular frequency range is already overcrowded – and it is very much possible that there will be some lingering problems with data transmissions (i.e., in sending/receiving signals) in this radio frequency. Complicating matters further is the fact that the 5G network cells will offer lower coverage than those of 4G(in spite of the exponentially higher bandwidth). This would mean that more cell towers will be needed to make 5G technology mainstream over time. The coverage of 5G can be up to 300 meters in the outdoor environment and a rather lowly 2 meters indoors.

Note: Frequency bands of up to 30 GHz will be used by 5G small cells. 5G Ultra Dense and 5G Millimeter Wave will use higher radio frequencies (up to 100 GHz and up to 300 GHz respectively).

Advantage: Role of 5G in IoT

Along with artificial intelligence (AI) and edge computing, 5G wireless technology will be right at the heart of the burgeoning IoT revolution over the next half a decade or so. Apart from expanding the realms of possibilities for Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT), 5G is also expected to play a major role in the development of Industry 4.0 in general, smart city applications, smart industrial software, powering connected cars, and smart homes & buildings. Seamless mobility, negligible latency, full scalability, and (hopefully) reliability will help 5G in making many high-end, mission-critical IoT projects implementable with ease. The general feeling is that the improved performance levels and network capacities of 5G technology will make it a key driver of ‘massive IoT’.

Note: At high-frequency ranges, data losses become an increasing risk. In a 5G ecosystem, such problems can be bypassed through dynamic beamforming.

Challenge: Data/Signal Losses Can Be Due to Myriad Factors

We have already mentioned about the probable losses in the 5G millimeter wave. These losses can happen due to different reasons – right from penetration problems, to foliage losses, rain attenuation, and a host of other factors. It also remains to be seen whether the ‘speed advantage’ of 5G indeed matches the expectations of software developers and end-users. The technology is still under development, the final specifications are yet not confirmed by the IEEE – and the speeds that can be achieved in a controlled test environment might be impossible to achieve in a real-world scenario, thanks to technological shortcomings. The first full 5G network might arrive in the US in early-2019 – but expecting it to be fully operational immediately will be too naive.

Note: Apart from the United States, China, South Korea, and Japan are also in the frame to launch 5G networks within the next few quarters. By the end of 2025, 4 out of every 10 5G connections in the world will be from China.

Advantage: Switch to a Software-Defined Standard

5G might very well turn out to be the last incremental update in wireless connectivity. Unlike 4G (and older generations), which is determined by modulation and frequency (i.e., interface-defined), 5G will be the first-ever software-defined wireless standard. New frequency bands/waves can be quickly included in 5G networks, and since everything becomes programmable – newer wireless protocols will become available via software updates. In other words, the architecture-focused 5G can be dubbed as ‘continuous G’ – the standard that marks the end of ‘generational improvements’ in wireless networking technology. All improvements will be continuously integrated, and maybe there will be no 6G.

Note: 5G technology will not be a direct replacement of 4G (in the manner in which 4G replaced 3G). It will have the capability of working with 4G networks – ensuring that the older generations do not have to be immediately replaced.

Challenge: The Security Cloud 

For all the advanced computing and networking power of 5G technology, there still remain doubts over how it will handle critical security and privacy concerns. A mid-2017 report revealed that both 3G and 4G were exposed to ‘stingray’ attacks, and other alarmingly common forms of data hacks. To make 5G a viable and ‘safe’ technology, the onus will lie on the carriers to incorporate robust endpoint security standards (behavior-based instead of the regular signature-based) for identifying/removing malware, create pre-tested firewalls, monitor DNS activities and establish strong data integrity assurances. Better identity management systems will be required as well, along with smart sandboxing solutions. Cloud networks and data virtualization will have very important roles to play in 5G environments – and if the security assurances are not up to the mark, people might be wary of adopting the new wireless generation.

Note: The operability of Massive MIMO (multiple input multiple output) systems will also have a big influence on 5G performance levels. ZTE, Huawei, and Facebook are some of the big players who have already showcased such systems.

Advantage: A Solution for the “Last-Mile Issue”

5G should finally be able to offer a way to resolve the much-talked-about ‘last-mile issue’, related to the non-availability of network connectivity in rural/sparsely populated semi-urban areas. Even in a developed nation like the United States, these problems exist in a big way – and what’s more, the creation of hi-speed fiber-based networks is not an economically viable solution for such areas. With the help of the 5G technology, it will be possible to build powerful wireless hotspots – and together with LPWAN technologies like LoRa (by Semtech) and Sigfox – can make internet in non-urban areas more mainstream. The biggest beneficiary of this would be the precision farming sector, with companies rushing to come out with unique, cutting-edge agritech tools. Of course, we will have to wait for the technology to become available on smartphones and tablets – for its benefits to become fully apparent in this context.

Note: The benefits of 5G connections will not be limited to low-population zones only. Since the technology will be using larger pipelines for bolstering cell reception qualities, the performance should be better in heavily populated areas too.

Challenge: Making 5G Available to Everyone

And let’s be fair – if this doesn’t happen, all the hefty investments for the upgrade will make little sense. We are still presumably a fair way away of having the technology available on mobile devices – and the first set of 5G device prototypes are comparable in size to big computer systems. The enormity of the task of implementing nationwide 5G network architectures cannot be underestimated either. In addition, more awareness has to be generated among the not-particularly-tech-savvy section of the global population – so that they grow motivated to give 5G a try. The early 5G trials have kickstarted things, and by the turn of the decade, we should have a full commercial rollout.

Note: Cellular drones, LTE-U, LTE for IoT and C-U2X are some of the most important technologies under IoT.

Advantage: Support for Parallel Multiple Services and Heterogeneous Services

With bi-directional bandwidth shaping, smaller antenna sizes and the (much) greater bandwidths, 5G will revolutionize mobile technology. People will be able to use multiple services simultaneously (say, tracking weather updates during a voice call). The underlying technologies of 5G will also be powerful enough to support private networks and other high-end heterogeneous services. A recent survey found that – in an ideal scenario – 5G can bring about a hundred-fold increase in network efficiency and traffic capacity levels, and a three-fold increase in spectrum efficiency levels. The average connection density levels should also go up in a big way.

Note: Seamless carrier aggregation will make it easy to access and use higher bandwidth levels.

Challenge: Need for Skilled Personnel

Making 5G operational on a worldwide basis will need the active involvement of a really large number of highly-trained software and data network engineers. Since the existing infrastructures (mostly) will be overhauled, the importance of providing training to the available manpower would be paramount. From conceptualization and installation to deployment, maintenance and fault-detection/repairs/debugging – every phase of 5G will require expert human help. In the mobile app development space per se, the need will be for developers and testers who can collaborate to design truly 5G-compatible applications.

Note: 5G is also known as the ‘IMT-2020’ technology. Its predecessor is referred to as ‘IMT-Advanced.’

For best performance in already crowded wireless spectrums, 5G devices should ideally be capable of dynamic bandwidth selection. Moreover, it has to be kept in mind that we are not creating ‘a faster network’ just for the heck of it. The infrastructure and the applications have to be upgraded according to the practical use cases…instances where 5G can indeed help the customers.

As many as 18 carriers – Verizon, Sprint, Vodafone, AT&T, Telstra among others – have plans to release 5G devices in 2019. It will be fascinating to see how the technology makes the most of its powerful advantages while tackling the challenges in the best possible manner. The 5G revolution is almost upon us – and although there are still a few rough edges – it is set to take up wireless connectivity to the next level.

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LTE Was Yesterday: The New Mobile Standard of 5G Is Coming

5G will be the successor to the current 4G or LTE mobile technology in Germany. There are still many questions left. What makes both standards different? WHen does it come? Do you need that? Here you can get all the information about the mobile Internet of the future.

The Current Standard: LTE

LTE (Long Term Evolution) is the 4th generation of mobile technology. That’s why the name 4G. This now offers various levels of expansion. LTE also serves as a DSL replacement in rural areas and has been standard in mobile phone contracts since 2015. For example, Vodafone offers LTE speeds of up to 500 Mbps in the latest mobile and cable offerings.

The Successor: What Is 5G?

Numerous research data and visions already paint a fairly accurate picture of the new standard. Meanwhile, the official 5G logo and the name “5G” were officially presented. Responsible for this is the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) – a cooperation for the standardization of mobile communications.

Huawei, the leading 5G developer, speaks of higher data rates, higher capacity, lower latency and significantly increased energy efficiency. In keeping with this, the Chinese presented the Balong5G01 – the world’s first 5G chip – as part of the MWC 2018 . With this little marvel of technology, up to 2.3 Gbps are possible. However, when the chip is installed in the first Huawei smartphones is open.

Fast Downloads With 10 GB/s Save Time

The data transfer rate will be up to 100 times higher than at 4G. Thus, downloads with up to 10 GBit / s are easily possible. Perfect because the consumed content is getting bigger and bigger. Be it virtual reality or augmented reality applications, high-resolution videos or apps. A stable and fast connection is a prerequisite for a pleasant user experience. It also saves a lot of time: The content of a DVD would be completely downloaded in just 3.6 seconds .

1,000 Times Higher Capacity for More Security

Thanks to 5G, the network capacity is increased by a factor of 1000. Means: The often observed at city festivals or festivals effect of completely overloaded network cells is a thing of the past. Significantly more people – and machines – can use the 5G network for telephoning, surfing, streaming, downloading and uploading. Without loss, in the same place. Worldwide, up to 100 billion (!) mobile devices should be accessible at the same time. This improves accessibility and security as well as (again) your user experience.

Fun Fact: So far, it often helps to change the network reception of LTE on the much slower, but less used UMTS network. So you can surf slower, but at least you can call at the crucial moment.

Improved Network Reliability: Latency of Less Than 1 Millisecond Achievable

Also, the waiting for a response from the server, the so-called ping or the latency , is significantly reduced. Especially in online games annoying a high ping by stuttering or delays that cause frustration very quickly (and the screen death). Much more important in reality, for example, is the communication between self-driving cars. If car A says “I brake”, then car B behind it must also go nuts – and do it as quickly as possible. Extremely tight latencies are crucial for this, which are made possible by 5G.

The same applies to a delayed page build during streaming. 5G achieves a ping of less than 1 millisecond . The footballer would fall over in the moment the slap. Delays or network terminations: No indication.

Low Energy: 90% Less Power Than 4G

The energy efficiency is also significantly increased compared to 4G : So 5G requires only 1/1000 of the energy consumption per transmitted bit in contrast to 4G. In addition, the power consumption per mobile service can be reduced by 90%. This protects the environment and ultimately your wallet.

What New Applications Does 5G Offer?

Huawei has already thought about this. Right at the forefront: applications for networking a wide variety of devices, such as smart TVs and refrigerators. This development of the ” Internet of Things ” ( IOT ) will increase significantly in the coming years. In addition, there are industrial aspects, such as the partially automated driving on highways. Later, of course, the already mentioned autonomous driving. This ensures improved traffic safety and increased ride comfort. The industry can also look forward to a drastic expansion of wirelessly networked systems .

Use virtual realities (VR) even more comprehensively. Even expanded realities (AR) will be further expanded. Especially handy when shopping: In the future, you will check whether the (virtual) cabinet looks good in the corner of the living room. Only then will you buy it. Of course, 360 ° video content will be used more often, if not exclusively.

In short: You expect a comprehensive digitization of Germany in all areas of life. This ” everyday revolution ” is synonymous with the invention of the smartphone . Even the little helpers have changed our approach to technology and thus our entire life lasting.

What Are the Challenges?

Unfortunately, there are many. 5G is above all the mobile operators with great demands. Above all, new frequency bands are needed. The network must be removed – and new cables laid – be. Finally, the number of users is constantly increasing. New networks additionally promote this circumstance (see “The Internet of Things”). Legal framework conditions, such as for autonomous driving, must be created. In addition, contracts and licenses. So enormous costs will be on the providers. Therefore, the mobile rates could be more expensive. In addition, new smartphones are needed, which support 5G. According to Huawei, the first devices are expected in 2019 .

5G Is Already a Reality in South Korea

In other countries, there are already extensive test runs. The perfect example here is South Korea and the 2018 Winter Olympics in Pyeongchang. These finally represent a perfect stage for so-called demonstration networks.

These demonstration networks include the “5G Village” (5G Village). There, the athletes, as well as the audience can enjoy unbelievable transmission speeds. South Korea’s Telekom KT has set up a test network for speeds of up to 10 Gbit / s (up to 100x faster than 4G) for Pyeongchang 2018, laying over 1,300 kilometers of fiber-optic cable. Of course, the right hardware is missing, but in a hall fitting 5G tablets from Samsung and over 100 360-degree cameras were set up. This allows the athletes to be viewed from all angles. There are also simulators showing the future of Virtual Reality. Thus, the skills of 5G are presented to the public at an early stage. 4G also led South Korea’s dynamic mobile market.

5G Will Sustainably Improve the Digital World

The previous findings make it clear: 5G will revolutionize your everyday life . Now it is the policy and the mobile operators to ensure a nationwide network expansion to drive development. Currently, even the 4G expansion is not yet completed.

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Op-ed | Balancing terrestrial & satellite 5G needs for international spectrum harmonization

This op-ed originally appeared in the March 12, 2018 issue of SpaceNews magazine.

We are in an exciting time for telecommunications services. 5G, or fifth-generation wireless technology, is on the horizon and will begin being deployed by the end of the decade. The introduction of 5G services will bring users globally the ability to have true anytime, anywhere capabilities to support a myriad of user devices and applications never imagined. 5G will be a network of networks in the truest sense of the word. This network will be comprised of competing communications technologies, whether terrestrial mobile, satellite, fixed microwave, or even high altitude platforms, among others. Because of the anticipated high demand for capacity, each of these services will need access to adequate spectrum to operate. Each critical to the network performing as needed and to reach all users. However, since the required spectrum remains a scarce resource, we must find ways for the different operators to share spectrum where possible, understanding that in some cases, primary use of spectrum is required by one service.

In determining how spectrum is shared among the different services, it is important to understand how international harmonization plays into this determination. International harmonization occurs at the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) at its World Radiocommunication Conferences (WRCs), which are held every three to four years. Through the ITU WRC process, spectrum allocations are made and regulations are coordinated on using that spectrum on a global and regional basis.

For some period of years, countries have sought identification of spectrum for international mobile telephony (IMT) services. While having no regulatory impact, such identifications provide guidance for use of the spectrum by terrestrial and satellite IMT services, as appropriate. The current WRC Agenda for the 2019 Conference has identified several bands under WRC 2018 Agenda Item 1.13 for possible identification for terrestrial IMT-2020 (also known as 5G). These bands include: 24.25-27.5 GHz, 37-40.5 GHz, 42.5-43.5 GHz, 45.5-47 GHz, 47.2-50.2 GHz, 50.4-52.6 GHz, 66-76 GHz and 81-86 GHz (Proposed IMT Bands). Other bands (31.8-33.4 GHz, 40.5-42.5 GHz and 47-47.2 GHz) are being considered for co-primary allocation to the mobile service and identification as well to the terrestrial component of IMT.

Any terrestrial identification for IMT would result in the use of these bands for mobile IMT-2020 services. This means that the deployments would likely be dense, with user terminals and base stations operating in the same band. Many of these deployments will be based on small cell topology. Although the Proposed IMT Bands are or may be allocated to the mobile service (MS), many of these bands are also shared on a co-primary basis with other services, including the fixed satellite service (FSS). While there are some regulatory provisions to enable sharing, both the FSS and MS plans for these bands were not developed at the time of the allocation. The current international regulations do not provide sufficient protections to enable sharing among the services (satellite or terrestrial) being planned for these bands.

As such, it is highly likely that use of these bands by one or the other service to support 5G may cause harmful interference into the other radio service(s) operating in the band. It makes sense then for the next WRC in 2019 (WRC-19) to adopt protections for either or both planned uses of these bands so the bands can be used on a non-harmful interference basis globally, or at least regionally. Such protections may also require dedicating certain bands to one primary use.

If such actions are not taken internationally, users will have to work on a country-by-country basis to obtain the protections they require for their use of the bands or face potential harmful interference. This is particularly concerning since many countries simply adopt the ITU Radio Regulations for their domestic rules. If there are no protections/regulations internationally, there could be chaos since domestic regulations may not be adopted. This means the spectrum will not be used as efficiently as possible, denying users of access to 5G services.

Despite this risk, some ITU participants are urging that the ITU at WRC-19 simply identify all of the Proposed IMT Bands for the terrestrial deployment of IMT on a global basis with the adoption of any regulations that would provide protections for additional uses of these same frequency bands. This approach would provide broad tuning ranges for terrestrial 5G. These advocates argue that countries that want to enable the use of these frequency bands for other uses could do this on a country by country basis or on a regional basis, preferably out of the WRC process. This would provide terrestrial operators and manufacturers, including chip set manufacturers, with the ability to capture economies of scale across the word.

However, this approach would result in the unavailability of some if not all of these bands for FSS, including for 5G services. FSS services are inherently global; unlike terrestrial services,they cannot easily account for national differences. First, communications satellites serve multiple countries. Accordingly, if spectrum use for FSS in the above 24 GHz bands is made on a country by country basis, it will require all bands to be supported on the satellite so that they have access to sufficient spectrum to support the capacity demands of users. However, unlike terrestrial base stations and user equipment, satellites have limits on weight that they can launch into space. Critical components, including antennas, feeds, cavity filters and wave guides are optimized for peak performance in specific frequency bands. Each additional frequency band that is added to a satellite adds weight, cost, and complexity. There is a technical limit on the size of a satellite that can be launched into space. Having to include all the bands will make the satellite too large to launch and too costly to build.

In addition, incorporating tunable range on board the satellite requires introduction of expensive technologies not yet proven for space operation. Further, this may result in a dramatic reduction in the lifespan of such satellites, and change the economics of commercial satellite communications in an unacceptable manner.

Further, the shape of satellite beams will not conform to the territory of each country, as it is limited by the antenna technology; antenna beam forming cannot achieve that level of precision, either from the vast distance of geosynchronous orbit or from a constantly moving non-geostationary orbit (NGSO) platform. When neighboring countries use, different bands, it will be extremely difficult to limit cross-border interference from the satellite system.

And of equal importance, the lack of certainty as to the availability of spectrum to operate will make it impossible for the business community to invest in such expensive projects as regional or global satellite networks.

This means that having different protections and operational limits in each country will make it operationally difficult, if not impossible, to provide a wide area coverage type of satellite solution which is critical to support 5G over satellites.

Adopting tuning ranges internationally for the frequency bands above 24 GHz, without adequate protections for satellite systems operating in these ranges on an international level, will effectively preclude the use of these bands by global or regional satellite systems. It is unclear that countries will adopt the necessary technical protections, since many nations rely on the ITU for their technical expertise. Further, the additional weight that would be required on a satellite, as well as technical and operational complexity of operating a satellite that has to adjust to differing bands and protection criteria on a country by country basis, is not realistic from either a technical or cost perspective. Satellites cannot physically localize their emissions (nor restrict where they can accept interference from) to areas defined to the precision of a national border. The smallest beam diameter in any currently-conceived commercial satellite system is on the order of 100 miles.

Every satellite beam will, in general, cross a country border. Every pair of adjacent countries must therefore agree on the satellite spectrum to be used or the satellite cannot be used in that border region at all in either country. The only logical solution is for all countries — globally, or at least on a regional basis — to agree at the upcoming WRC-19 on protections for satellite use in certain bands as well as prime use for user terminals. Failure to do so will mean that true 5G is not delivered to all the world’s population.

Jennifer Manner is the Senior Vice President of Regulatory Affairs at EchoStar Corp. and an adjunct professor of law at Georgetown University Law Center. She is also the President-Elect of the US ITU Association, Chair of the Network Service Working Group of ESOA and a Board Member of the Satellite Industry Association.

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Episode 147: Okay Google, manage my home

At CES I made the decision to traumatize my family and swap out the Amazon Echo for the Google Home despite Wi-Fi challenges. We kick off this week’s show explaining why, and discussing some new tricks the Home has. From there, we hit the partnership between Maersk and IBM to create a digitized supply chain using the blockchain. Then we talk about a startup that might help with that effort. Add in news bits ranging from BMW acquiring ParkMobile to a new low power wide area network module that can last 15 years, and we round out the first half of the show. We also answer a listener question about radiation from IoT devices.

Port of Algeciras, Spain. Image courtesy of Maersk.

Our guest takes us back to the topic of IoT networks and the future 5G holds for the internet of things. Chetan Sharma is the founder of Chetan Sharma Consulting, and is a widely respected telecom analyst. He talks about what networks are likely to succeed and why, and then also digs into his thoughts on how we should rethink competition and M&A in the digital economy. He also asks if it’s too late to regulate anticompetitive data practices in the U.S. I hope you enjoy the show.

Hosts: Stacey Higginbotham and Kevin Tofel
Guest: Chetan Sharma of Chetan Sharma Consulting
Sponsors: PointCentral and CBT Nuggets

  • The Google Home has a secret API
  • IBM and Maersk ask what blockchain can do for shipping
  • What 5G means for IoT and which flavor arrives first
  • Things to know when picking a LPWAN
  • Our anticompetitive regime is built for the 20th century, not the 21st

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China attempts to be a leader not a follower in 5G, dominate another area of tech

The first round of standards for 5G sees China taking a more decisive role that could put Chinese manufacturers at the forefront of equipment production for the new technology–at the expense of others around the world. A foreshortened timetable for 5G rollout also emerged at an international meeting.

Radio Access Network (RAN) just held its Meeting 78 in Lisbon where networking companies, mobile carriers and equipment manufacturers from around the world gather to negotiate the future of the technology. At the meeting, the standards body 3GPP approved specifications for the next generation of mobile signal: non-standalone (NSA) 5G New Radio (NR) which for simplicity’s sake we will refer to as “5G” despite ongoing discussion on who is in charge of this standard.

This approval happened six months earlier than had been expected, accelerating the rollout of large-scale trials and commercial networks. Full approval of 5G standards is expected in September 2018.

China was well represented at the meeting with its three major telecom companies plus network equipment manufacturers Huawei and ZTE. In a joint media release, Yang Chaobin, president of Huawei’s 5G product line, said Phase 1 of the 3GPP 5G NR standardization was completed “with great progress” and that “Huawei will keep working with global partners to bring 5G into the period of large-scale global commercial deployment from 2018,” according to ZDNet.

China Telecom EVP Liu Guiqing said the carrier hopes to launch field trials in many major Chinese cities in 2018 and China Mobile EVP Li Zhengmao said the network is looking at 2020.

Chinese tech groups including Huawei and ZTE are known to be putting huge sums into 5G research. They could secure up to 20 percent of all essential patents for 5G technology, according to Edison Lee, analyst at investment bank Jefferies.

There has been a new “generation” of mobile network roughly every 9 years from the early 1980s. 4G The time needed is in part due to developing technology, but also forging standards and negotiating international and global specifications. These allow hardware to be used in multiple regions or worldwide. Previous generations saw China on the backfoot, limiting its abilities to benefit from selling equipment.

Frank Hersey

Frank Hersey is a Beijing-based tech reporter who’s been coming to China since 2001. He tries to go beyond the headlines to explain the context and impact of developments in China’s tech sector. Get in touch with him on frankhersey@technode.com

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China on course for full 5G rollout as pilot area launches in Lanzhou

China looks to be on course to offer a commercial 5G network at roughly the same time as developed nations. China Telecom has connected its base towers in Lanzhou, making the city the sixth in just over a month to be host to a 5G pilot area.

At the end of November, the National Development and Reform Commission said the country’s 5G network would start to take shape with pilots in at least five cities, as part of a broader plan for 2018. Then on Dec 1 Chengdu became the fifth host to announce a pilot.

Each test area has 6 to 8 base stations. Shenzhen was the first to get a pilot 5G network, on October 27. Xinhua has now reported that the pilot covers an area that is home to a large number of high-tech companies in the Shenzhen Software Industry Base, the Shuangchuangyuan innovation park, the Shenzhen University Campus and Hong Kong Polytechnic University Incubation Base in Shenzhen.

On November 8 China Telecom announced that Xiong’an, the site for a totally new city outside Beijing, had begun its pilot. Field tests show the network to be 20 times faster than 4G. On November 10th Suzhou was announced with Shanghai the fourth pilot announced the next day.

China Telecom’s plan is to conduct lab and field testing in 2017-18 ready for partial commercial rollout in 2019 and full-scale rollout in 2020.

Previous advances in mobile network technology saw China had lagged, for the move to 5G, China seems to be in line with other countries. Policy changes have been made accordingly to help the technology benefit the “Made in China 2025” campaign.

Chen Zhaoxiong, the vice minister of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, said at a conference in June that China has conducted a full range of 5G technology research and development, including large-scale antennas and ultra-dense networking. This puts China in line with other countries for a 2019-20 launch. China has previously announced collaborations with other regions to boost the technology’s rollout.

Another requirement for the success of the 5G network is enough demand. One of the panels at last week’s Wuzhen’s World Internet Conference agreed that China’s mix of mobile internet dependency and big data make it highly likely to succeed in terms of demand.

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CORRECTED | Satellite operators oppose Intelsat-Intel proposal to share C-band spectrum

“It’s not possible for Intelsat to trade anything they they don’t own,” Thomas Choi, Asia Broadcast Satellite (ABS) chief executive, said Oct. 3. Credit: SpaceNews/Kate Patterson

CORRECTION: An earlier version of this story and summaries in the Oct. 4 issues of First Up and First Up Satcom mistakenly reported that S&P Global downgraded Intelsat Sept. 26. The downgrade happened in 2016.

MOUNTAIN VIEW, California — Global satellite operators attending the Satellite Innovation Symposium here reacted angrily to news that Intelsat and Intel asked the U.S. Federal Communications Commission to allow terrestrial communications firms to use satellite-controlled C-band spectrum for future 5G networks.

“It’s not possible for Intelsat to trade anything they they don’t own,” Thomas Choi, Asia Broadcast Satellite (ABS) chief executive, said Oct. 3. “Many operators, including SES, Eutelsat and even ABS have C-band rights over North America. We would never agree to trade that.”

David Hartshorn, secretary general of the Global VSAT Forum, called the FCC filing “a remarkable development” because Intelsat has been among the firms who have been the most staunch defenders of C-band spectrum for satellite in the face of terrestrial competition for spectrum.

C-band is critically important for many satellite customers, including the U.S. government, maritime operators and the cable industry, which uses it for distribution, added Sergy Mummert, SES Satellites senior vice president for corporate development Americas.

Andrew Jordan, AsiaSat executive director, president and chief executive, suggested the filing was an act of desperation. “I look at the Intel deal as no more than a drowning man reaching out for an anchor,” he said.

Intelsat shares rose 11 percent on news of the C-band-sharing proposal.

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